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Research Papers

Analysis of Stand-Up Forklift Operator Injuries in Off-the-Dock and Tip-Over Incidents With a Latched Door on the Operator Access Opening

[+] Author and Article Information
John F. Wiechel

S-E-A Limited;
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43085
e-mail: wiechel.4@osu.edu

William R. “Mike” Scott

Biodynamic Research Corporation,
San Antonio, TX 78249
e-mail: mscott@brconline.com

Manuscript received February 18, 2015; final manuscript received August 7, 2015; published online January 4, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Chimba Mkandawire.

ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Part B 2(2), 021005 (Jan 04, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: RISK-15-1021; doi: 10.1115/1.4031275 History: Received February 18, 2015; Accepted August 10, 2015

A series of tip-over and off-the-dock impact tests were performed with stand-up forklifts to investigate the potential for injury to the operator of a forklift in these types of accidents, when the forklift is equipped with an operator’s compartment door. One Crown Equipment Company 35RRTT Model and one 35RCTT Model stand-up forklifts were used in the impact tests. The only modification to the forklifts for the tests was the placement of a door on the entrance to the operator’s compartment. A Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was placed in the operator’s compartment as a human surrogate. During each test, head accelerations, chest accelerations, neck loads, and lumbar loads were measured on the ATD. The motion of the forklift and the ATD were filmed with real-time video and high-speed cameras. Results from the impact tests indicate that there is a high risk of head injury in a right-side tip-over accident and a high risk of head injury and neck injury in a left-side tip-over accident. There is a high risk of a head injury, neck injury, and thoracic injury in off-the-dock forks-trailing accidents. In an off-the-dock forks-leading accident, there is a high risk of arm/shoulder injury, head injury, and neck injury. In both tip-over and off-the-dock forks-trailing accidents, there is a high probability of an entrapment injury under the overhead guard on the forklift.

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Figures

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Fig. 3

Forklift test situations: (a) right-side tip-over, (b) off-the-dock forks trailing, and (c) off-the-dock forks leading

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Fig. 4

Asymmetry of the 35RRTT Model during tip-over

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Fig. 5

35RRTT Model and ATD motion in forks-trailing off-the-dock test

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Fig. 6

ATD head impact on the 35RCTT Model forks-leading off-the-dock test

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