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Research Papers

An Examination of Motorcycle Antilock Brake Systems in Reducing Crash Risk

[+] Author and Article Information
Graeme F. Fowler

Exponent, Inc., Test and Engineering Center,
23445 North 19th Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85027
e-mail: gfowler@exponent.com

Rose M. Ray

Exponent, Inc.,
149 Commonwealth Dr., Menlo Park, CA 94025
e-mail: rray@exponent.com

Su-Wei Huang

Exponent, Inc.,
149 Commonwealth Dr., Menlo Park, CA 94025
e-mail: shuang@exponent.com

Ke Zhao

Exponent, Inc.,
149 Commonwealth Dr., Menlo Park, CA 94025
e-mail: kzhao@exponent.com

Todd A. Frank

Exponent, Inc., Test and Engineering Center,
23445 North 19th Ave., Phoenix, AZ 85027
e-mail: tfrank@exponent.com

Manuscript received March 05, 2015; final manuscript received August 31, 2015; published online January 4, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Chimba Mkandawire.

ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Part B 2(2), 021006 (Jan 04, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: RISK-15-1038; doi: 10.1115/1.4031522 History: Received March 05, 2015; Accepted September 01, 2015

To prevent wheel lockup (and possible loss-of-control and capsize) during hard braking, motorcycle manufacturers have equipped motorcycles with antilock brake systems (ABS) either as an option or as standard equipment. Several studies utilizing real-world crash data have been published, which estimate the effectiveness of motorcycle ABS in reducing the risk of a crash based on varying assumptions. These investigations have reported mixed results. The present investigation relies upon the fatality analysis reporting system (FARS) and the Florida police-reported crash databases to further investigate the effectiveness of motorcycle ABS by expanding upon and refining previous approaches. Notably, a case-control approach is used, whereby crashes involving ABS- and non-ABS-equipped motorcycles are divided into five groups with a varying likelihood that ABS will affect the risk of crashes in that group. The group of crashes with the least likelihood of being influenced by ABS is considered the control group and used as a measure of exposure to crashes. This methodology attempts to reduce any selection biases that might exist in the two motorcycle classes. The results support the hypothesis that ABS is effective in reducing the crash risk in some crash types. However, it was found that the case-control approach does not incorporate all factors that might influence the overall effectiveness of ABS, e.g., motorcycle class and operator age. Accounting for these additional factors would likely require the use of regression analyses and would benefit significantly from additional data.

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Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Vehicles , Motorcycles , Risk
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Motorcycle crash rates per registered-vehicle years

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Fig. 2

Relative risk (ABS/non-ABS) of crash Types 2–5 relative to crash Type 1 (RR(2–5)) and all crashes relative to numbers of registered vehicles

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Fig. 3

Relative risk (ABS/non-ABS) by crash type

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Fig. 4

Relative risk RR(2–5) by vehicle class

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Fig. 5

Relative risk RR(2–5) as a function of the presence or absence of contributing factors

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Fig. 6

Frequency of ABS and non-ABS crashes by crash type in FARS and Florida

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