0
Research Papers

Probabilistic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion in Insulated Components Operating in Offshore Facilities

[+] Author and Article Information
Elahe Shekari

Centre for Risk, Integrity and Safety Engineering (C-RISE),
Department of Process Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John’s, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: e.shekari@mun.ca

Faisal Khan

Centre for Risk, Integrity and Safety Engineering (C-RISE),
Department of Process Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John’s, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: fikhan@mun.ca

Salim Ahmed

Centre for Risk, Integrity and Safety Engineering (C-RISE),
Department of Process Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Memorial University of Newfoundland,
St. John’s, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
e-mail: sahmed@mun.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 14, 2016; final manuscript received August 28, 2016; published online November 21, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Mohammad Pourgol-Mohammad.

ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Part B 3(1), 011003 (Nov 21, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: RISK-16-1054; doi: 10.1115/1.4034603 History: Received February 14, 2016; Accepted August 28, 2016

Pitting corrosion under insulation is one of the challenging issues for safe operation of offshore facilities. Degradation usually remains hidden causing the inspection of insulated assets to be equally challenging. The modeling of the pitting corrosion under insulation (CUI) helps us to better understand the current state of the asset and predict failure. This paper investigates the factors affecting the pit initiation and pit growth on equipment under insulation operating in offshore environments. A methodology is proposed for studying the pitting CUI characteristics, including pit initiation time, pit density, and maximum pit depth over time. The proposed methodology provides a practical and more effective asset life management approach when supported by inspection data. The practical application of the proposed methodology is demonstrated in this paper using a pressure vessel case study in an offshore platform.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

American Petroleum Institute, 2011, API RP 571 Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry, 2nd Ed., API Publishing Services, Washington, DC.
Fitzgerald, B., Droz, C., and Winnik, S., “Piping System CUI: Old Problem; Different Approaches,” EFC WP15 Corrosion in the Refinery Industry, European Federation of Corrosion, Budapest, Hungary, p. 6.
Anton Hajj, 2013, Simple approach to Corrosion Under Insulation prevention. Bring Heat, Nace.
Lettich, M., 2005, “Is There a Cure for Corrosion under Insulation?” Insulation Outlook, Reston, VA.
American Petroleum Institute, 2008, API RP 581: Risk-Based Inspection Technology, 2nd Ed., API Publishing Services, Washington, DC.
ASM Handbook Committee, 2002, ASM Metals Handbook Volume 11, Failure Analysis and Prevention, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.
Caines, S., Khan, F., and Shirokoff, J., 2013, “Analysis of Pitting Corrosion on Steel under Insulation in Marine Environments.” J. Loss Prev. Process. Ind., 26, 1466–1483. 10.1016/j.jlp.2013.09.010
Hong, H., 1999, “Application of the Stochastic Process to Pitting Corrosion.” Corrosion, 55, 10–16. 10.5006/1.3283958
Melchers, R. E., 2008, “A New Interpretation of the Corrosion Loss Processes for Weathering Steels in Marine Atmospheres,” Corros. Sci., 50, 3446–3454. 10.1016/j.corsci.2008.09.003
Velázquez, J. C., Weide, J., Hernández, E., and Hernández, H. H., 2014, “Statistical Modelling of Pitting Corrosion: Extrapolation of the Maximum Pit Depth-Growth,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 9(8), 4129–4143.
Shekari, E., Khan, F., and Ahmed, S., 2015, “A Predictive Approach to Fitness-For-Service Assessment of Pitting Corrosion,” Int. J. Press. Vessels Pip., 137, 13–21. [CrossRef]
Yasser Mubarak Al-Mowalad, “Corrosion Under Insulation (CUI) Management,” 6th Middle East Non Destructive Testing Conference Exhibition (MENDT 2012), US Non-Destructive Testing Society, Bahrain, p. 1–7.
Ahluwalia, H. S., 2006, “CUI: An In-Depth Analysis,” Insulation Outlook, Reston.
Wika, S. F., 2012, “Pitting and Crevice Corrosion of Stainless Steel under Offshore Conditions,” Master's thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Frankel, G. S., and Sridhar, N., 2008, “Understanding Localized Corrosion,” Mater. Today, 11(10), 38–44. 10.1016/S1369-7021(08)70206-2
Pardo, A., Otero, E., Merino, M. C., López, M. D., Utrilla, M. V., and Moreno, F., 2000, “Influence of pH and Chloride Concentration on the Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Behavior of High-Alloy Stainless Steels,” Corrosion, 56, 411–418. 10.5006/1.3280545
Matsch, S., and Boehni, H., 2000, “Electrochemical Investigations of Pitting Events at Different Temperatures by Current Transients Analysis,” Pits Pores Formation Properties, and Significance Advanced Material Proceeding International Symposium, Vol. 25, Schmuki, P., ed., Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, pp. 70–74.
Elola, A. S., Otero, T. F., and Porro, A., 1992, “Evolution of the Pitting of Aluminum Exposed to the Atmosphere,” Corrosion, 48, 854–863. 10.5006/1.3315885
Pride, S. T., Scully, J. R., and Hudson, J. L., 1994, “Metastable Pitting of Aluminum and Criteria for the Transition to Stable Pit Growth.” J. Electrochem. Soc., 141, 3028. 10.1149/1.2059275
Workman, M. R., 2014, “On Probabilistic Transition Rates Used in Markov Models for Pitting Corrosion,” Master’s thesis, The University of Akron, Akron, OH.
Zhao, J., 2014, “Risk Management for Pitting Corrosion,” Master’s thesis, The University of Akron, Akron, OH.
Nuhi, M., Abu Seer, T., Al Tamimi, A. M., Modarres, M., and Seibi, A., 2011, “Reliability Analysis for Degradation Effects of Pitting Corrosion in Carbon Steel Pipes,” Procedia Eng., 10, 1930–1935. 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.320
Datla, S. V., Jyrkama, M. I., and Pandey, M. D., 2008, “Probabilistic Modelling of Steam Generator Tube Pitting Corrosion,” Nucl. Eng. Des., 238, 1771–1778. 10.1016/j.nucengdes.2008.01.013
Caines, S., Khan, F., Shirokoff, J., and Qiu, W., 2015, “Experimental Design to Study Corrosion under Insulation in Harsh Marine Environments,” J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., 33, 39–51. 10.1016/j.jlp.2014.10.014
Mears, R. B., and Brown, R. H., 1937, “Corrosion Probability.” Ind. Eng. Chem., 29(10), pp. 1087–1091. [CrossRef]
Tsukaue, Y., Nakao, G., Takimoto, Y., and Yoshida, K., 1994, “Initiation Behavior of Pitting in Stainless Steels by Accumulation of Triiodide Ions in Water Droplets,” Corrosion, 50, 755–760. 10.5006/1.3293465
Shibata, T., and Suko, M., 1990, “Stochastic-Process of Pit Generation of Aluminum,” Denki Kagaku, 58, 227–231.
Shibata, T., 1990, “Stochastic Studies of Passivity Breakdown,” Corros. Sci., 31, 413–423. 10.1016/0010-938X(90)90140-Z
Shibata, T., 1996, “Statistical and Stochastic Approaches to Localized Corrosion,” Corrosion, 52, 813–830. 10.5006/1.3292074
Mao, D., 2007, “Bayesian Modeling of Pitting Corrosion in Steam Generators,” Master’s thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada.
Valor, A., Caleyo, F., Alfonso, L., Rivas, D., and Hallen, J. M., 2007, “Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion: A New Model for Initiation and Growth of Multiple Corrosion Pits,” Corros. Sci., 49, 559–579. 10.1016/j.corsci.2006.05.049
Aziz, P. M., 1956, “Application of the Statistical Theory of Extreme Values to the Analysis of Maximum Pit Depth Data for Aluminum,” Corrosion, 12(10), pp. 35–46. [CrossRef]
Melchers, R. E., 2004, “Pitting Corrosion of Mild Steel in Marine Immersion Environment—Part 1: Maximum Pit Depth,” Corrosion, 60, 824–836. 10.5006/1.3287863
Melchers, R. E., 2004, “Pitting Corrosion of Mild Steel in Marine Immersion Environment—Part 2: Variability of Maximum Pit Depth,” Corrosion, 60, 937–944. 10.5006/1.3287827
Valor, A., Caleyo, F., Alfonso, L., Velázquez, J. C., and Hallen, J. M., 2013, “Markov Chain Models for the Stochastic Modeling of Pitting Corrosion,” Math. Probl. Eng., 2013, 1–13. 10.1155/2013/108386
Hong, H., 1999, “Application of the Stochastic Process to Pitting Corrosion,” Corrosion, 55, 10–16. 10.5006/1.3283958
Romanoff, M., 1957, “Underground Corrosion,” , National Bureau of Standard, Washington, DC.
Gumbel, E., 1954, Statistical Theory of Extreme Values and Sorne Practical Applications: a Series of Lectures, Volume 33 of Applied Mathematics Series, National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.
Shibata, T., 1991, “Evaluation of Corrosion Failure by Extreme Value Statistics,” ISIJ Int., 31, 115–121. 10.2355/isijinternational.31.115
Deen, K. M., Virk, M. A., Haque, C. I., Ahmad, R., and Khan, I. H., 2010, “Failure Investigation of Heat Exchanger Plates due to Pitting Corrosion,” Eng. Fail. Anal., 17(4), pp. 886–893. [CrossRef]
Stewart, M. G., and Al-Harthy, A., 2008, “Pitting Corrosion and Structural Reliability of Corroding RC Structures: Experimental Data and Probabilistic Analysis,” Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf., 93, 373–382. 10.1016/j.ress.2006.12.013
Yamamoto, S., and Sakauchi, T., 1991, “An Extreme-Value Statistical Analysis of Perforation Corrosion in the Lap Joints of Automotive Body Panels,” Int. J. Mater. Prod. Technol., 6(1), pp. 37–46.
Sheikh, A. K., Boah, J. K., and Hanen, D. A., 1990, “Statistical Modeling of Pitting Corrosion and Pipeline Reliability,” Corrosion, 46, 190–197. 10.5006/1.3585090
Jarrah, A., Bigerelle, M., Guillemot, G., Najjar, D., Iost, A., and Nianga, J.-M., 2011, “A Generic Statistical Methodology to Predict the Maximum Pit Depth of a Localized Corrosion Process,” Corros. Sci., 53, 2453–2467. 10.1016/j.corsci.2011.03.026
Melchers, R. E., 2005, “Statistical Characterization of Pitting Corrosion—Part 2: Probabilistic Modeling for Maximum Pit Depth,” Corrosion, 61(8), 766–777. [CrossRef]
Melchers, R. E., 2008, “Extreme Value Statistics and Long-Term Marine Pitting Corrosion of Steel,” Probab. Eng. Mech., 23, 482–488. 10.1016/j.probengmech.2007.09.003
Caleyo, F., Velázquez, J. C., Valor, A., and Hallen, J. M., 2009, “Markov Chain Modelling of Pitting Corrosion in Underground Pipelines,’ Corros. Sci., 51, 2197–2207. 10.1016/j.corsci.2009.06.014
Provan, J. W., and Rodriguez, E. S., 1989, “Part I: Development of a Markov Description of Pitting Corrosion,” Corrosion, 45, 178–192. 10.5006/1.3577840
Morrison, T., and Worthingham, R., 1992, “Reliability of High Pressure Line Pipe under External Corrosion,” Proceeding of International Conference Offshore Mechanics Arctic Engineering, ASME International, Calgary, Canada, 401–408.
Mccallum, K. A., 2012, “Probabilistic Analysis of Pipeline Reliability Using a Markov Process,” Master thesis, The University of Akron, Akron, OH.
Shibata, T., 1996, “W. R. Whitney Award Lecture: Statistical and Stochastic Approaches to Localized Corrosion,” Corrosion, 52, 813–830. 10.5006/1.3292074
Perera, A. H., Drew, C. A., and Johnson, C. J., 2011, Expert Knowledge and Its Application in Landscape Ecology, Springer Science & Business Media, New York 10.1007/978-1-4614-1034-8.
API (American Petroleum Institute), 2014, API 510: Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration, 10th Ed., Washington, DC.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The methodology for evaluation of pitting CUI modeling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of maximum pit growth in an insulated component using Markov process, adopted from [11]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The estimated average maximum pit depth and observed values of maximum pit depth reported by Aziz’s pitting corrosion test [32]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Average pit density for 15 years

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) The PDF of maximum pit depth in different years and (b) the CDF of maximum pit depth in different years

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Maximum pit depth for 15 years

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Average pit density models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Average maximum pit depth for different APD models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Mean maximum pit depth in different values of ω

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Mean maximum pit depth in different values of χ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Schematic representation of the expected pitting damage after 5 and 15 years

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Articles from Part A: Civil Engineering
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In