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Research Papers

Design and Testing of a Crashworthy Landing Gear

[+] Author and Article Information
Tae-Uk Kim

Korea Aerospace Research Institute,
169-84 Gwahangno,
Daejeon 305-806, South Korea
e-mail: tukim@kari.re.rk

JeongWoo Shin

Korea Aerospace Research Institute,
169-84 Gwahangno,
Daejeon 305-806, South Korea
e-mail: jeongdal@kari.re.kr

Sang Wook Lee

Korea Aerospace Research Institute,
169-84 Gwahangno,
Daejeon 305-806, South Korea
e-mail: lsw@kari.re.kr

Manuscript received January 28, 2016; final manuscript received April 24, 2017; published online June 22, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Chimba Mkandawire.

ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Part B 3(4), 041006 (Jun 22, 2017) (5 pages) Paper No: RISK-16-1036; doi: 10.1115/1.4036663 History: Received January 28, 2016; Revised April 24, 2017

The development of a crashworthy landing gear is presented based on the civil regulations and the military specifications. For this, two representative crashworthy requirements are applied to helicopter landing gear design: the nose gear is designed to collapse in a controlled manner so that it does not penetrate the cabin and cause secondary hazards, and the main gear has to absorb energy as much as possible in crash case to decelerate the aircraft. To satisfy the requirements, the collapse mechanism triggered by shear-pin failure and the shock absorber using blow-off valve (BOV) is implemented in the nose and main gear, respectively. The crash performance of landing gear is demonstrated by drop tests. In the tests, performance data such as ground reaction loads and shock absorber stroke are measured and crash behaviors are recorded by high-speed camera. The test data show a good agreement with the prediction by simulation model, which proves the validity of the design and analysis.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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References

Batterbee, D. C. , Sims, N. D. , Stanway, R. , and Zbigniew, W. , 2007, “ Magnetorheological Landing Gear—1: A Design Methodology,” Smart Mater. Struct., 16(6), pp. 2429–2440. [CrossRef]
Batterbee, D. C. , Sims, N. D. , Stanway, R. , and Rennison, M. , 2007, “ Magnetorheological Landing Gear—2: Validation Using Experimental Data,” Smart Mater. Struct., 16(6), pp. 2441–2452. [CrossRef]
Choi, Y. T. , and Werely, N. M. , 2003, “ Vibration Control of a Landing Gear System Featuring Electrorheological/Magnetorheological Fluids,” J. Aircr., 40(3), pp. 432–439. [CrossRef]
SAE, 1992, “ Crashworthy Landing Gear Design,” SAE International, Warrendale, PA, Standard No. AIR 4566. http://standards.sae.org/air4566a/
Department of Defense, 1995, “ Light Fixed and Rotary-Wing Aircraft Crash Resistance,” Military Standard, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, Standard No. MIL-STD-1290. http://standards.globalspec.com/std/805402/npfc-mil-std-1290
Ministry of Defence, 1984, “ Design and Airworthiness Requirements for Service Aircraft,” Ministry of Defence, London, Standard No. DEF STAN 00-970.
Airoldi, A. , and Janszen, G. , 2005, “ A Design Solution for a Crashworthy Landing Gear With a New Triggering Mechanism for the Plastic Collapse of Metallic Tubes,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol., 9(5), pp. 445–455. [CrossRef]
Wiggenraad, J. F. M. , 2003, “ Crashworthiness Research at NLR,” National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Report No. NLR-TP-2003-317. http://reports.nlr.nl:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10921/631/tp-2003-317.pdf?sequence=1
VI-Grade, 2010, “ VI-Aircraft, Ver. 2010r1.13,” VI-Grade GmbH, Marburg, Germany.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Crash behavior of the nose gear

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Fig. 2

Crash behavior of the main gear

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Fig. 3

Example of typical ground reaction curve

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Fig. 5

Operational concept of the collapse mechanism

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Fig. 6

Force acting on upper and lower masses

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Fig. 7

The landing gear simulation model

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Fig. 8

Simulation of nose gear collapse behavior

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Fig. 9

Load versus stroke curve comparison for main gear

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Fig. 10

Overview of a drop test rig

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Fig. 11

Hydraulic buffers for extra energy absorption

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Fig. 12

Velocity profile from crash test

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Fig. 13

Energy absorption from touchdown to ground contact

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Fig. 14

Crash behavior of the nose landing gear

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Fig. 15

The comparison of ground reaction for the main gear

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Fig. 16

The load–deflection curve of tire

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Fig. 17

The comparison of ground reaction for the nose gear

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