Research Papers

Design and Testing of a Crashworthy Landing Gear

[+] Author and Article Information
Tae-Uk Kim

Korea Aerospace Research Institute,
169-84 Gwahangno,
Daejeon 305-806, South Korea
e-mail: tukim@kari.re.rk

JeongWoo Shin

Korea Aerospace Research Institute,
169-84 Gwahangno,
Daejeon 305-806, South Korea
e-mail: jeongdal@kari.re.kr

Sang Wook Lee

Korea Aerospace Research Institute,
169-84 Gwahangno,
Daejeon 305-806, South Korea
e-mail: lsw@kari.re.kr

Manuscript received January 28, 2016; final manuscript received April 24, 2017; published online June 22, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Chimba Mkandawire.

ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Part B 3(4), 041006 (Jun 22, 2017) (5 pages) Paper No: RISK-16-1036; doi: 10.1115/1.4036663 History: Received January 28, 2016; Revised April 24, 2017

The development of a crashworthy landing gear is presented based on the civil regulations and the military specifications. For this, two representative crashworthy requirements are applied to helicopter landing gear design: the nose gear is designed to collapse in a controlled manner so that it does not penetrate the cabin and cause secondary hazards, and the main gear has to absorb energy as much as possible in crash case to decelerate the aircraft. To satisfy the requirements, the collapse mechanism triggered by shear-pin failure and the shock absorber using blow-off valve (BOV) is implemented in the nose and main gear, respectively. The crash performance of landing gear is demonstrated by drop tests. In the tests, performance data such as ground reaction loads and shock absorber stroke are measured and crash behaviors are recorded by high-speed camera. The test data show a good agreement with the prediction by simulation model, which proves the validity of the design and analysis.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Batterbee, D. C. , Sims, N. D. , Stanway, R. , and Zbigniew, W. , 2007, “ Magnetorheological Landing Gear—1: A Design Methodology,” Smart Mater. Struct., 16(6), pp. 2429–2440. [CrossRef]
Batterbee, D. C. , Sims, N. D. , Stanway, R. , and Rennison, M. , 2007, “ Magnetorheological Landing Gear—2: Validation Using Experimental Data,” Smart Mater. Struct., 16(6), pp. 2441–2452. [CrossRef]
Choi, Y. T. , and Werely, N. M. , 2003, “ Vibration Control of a Landing Gear System Featuring Electrorheological/Magnetorheological Fluids,” J. Aircr., 40(3), pp. 432–439. [CrossRef]
SAE, 1992, “ Crashworthy Landing Gear Design,” SAE International, Warrendale, PA, Standard No. AIR 4566. http://standards.sae.org/air4566a/
Department of Defense, 1995, “ Light Fixed and Rotary-Wing Aircraft Crash Resistance,” Military Standard, Department of Defense, Washington, DC, Standard No. MIL-STD-1290. http://standards.globalspec.com/std/805402/npfc-mil-std-1290
Ministry of Defence, 1984, “ Design and Airworthiness Requirements for Service Aircraft,” Ministry of Defence, London, Standard No. DEF STAN 00-970.
Airoldi, A. , and Janszen, G. , 2005, “ A Design Solution for a Crashworthy Landing Gear With a New Triggering Mechanism for the Plastic Collapse of Metallic Tubes,” Aerosp. Sci. Technol., 9(5), pp. 445–455. [CrossRef]
Wiggenraad, J. F. M. , 2003, “ Crashworthiness Research at NLR,” National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Report No. NLR-TP-2003-317. http://reports.nlr.nl:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10921/631/tp-2003-317.pdf?sequence=1
VI-Grade, 2010, “ VI-Aircraft, Ver. 2010r1.13,” VI-Grade GmbH, Marburg, Germany.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Crash behavior of the nose gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Crash behavior of the main gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Example of typical ground reaction curve

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Operational concept of the collapse mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Force acting on upper and lower masses

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The landing gear simulation model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Simulation of nose gear collapse behavior

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Load versus stroke curve comparison for main gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Overview of a drop test rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Hydraulic buffers for extra energy absorption

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Velocity profile from crash test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Energy absorption from touchdown to ground contact

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Crash behavior of the nose landing gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

The comparison of ground reaction for the main gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

The load–deflection curve of tire

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

The comparison of ground reaction for the nose gear




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Articles from Part A: Civil Engineering
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In