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Research Papers

Effects of Loading Conditions and Skull Fracture on Load Transfer to Head

[+] Author and Article Information
Timothy G. Zhang, Kimberly A. Thompson, Sikhanda S. Satapathy

U.S. Army Research Laboratory,
Aberdeen Proving Ground,
Aberdeen, MD 21005

Manuscript received March 22, 2017; final manuscript received August 8, 2017; published online October 4, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Alba Sofi. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Part B 4(2), 021007 (Oct 04, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: RISK-17-1049; doi: 10.1115/1.4037647 History: Received March 22, 2017; Revised August 08, 2017

This study focuses on the effect of skull fracture on the load transfer to the head for low-velocity frontal impact of the head against a rigid wall or being impacted by a heavy projectile. The skull was modeled as a cortical–trabecular–cortical-layered structure in order to better capture the skull deformation and consequent failure. The skull components were modeled with an elastoplastic with failure material model. Different methods were explored to model the material response after failure, such as eroding element technique, conversion to fluid, and conversion to smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) particles. The load transfer to the head was observed to decrease with skull fracture.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Simplified geometry of (a) head (skin and flesh, bone, CSF, and brain) and (b) three-layer geometry for skull in the impact zone

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Fig. 2

(a) The mesh for the head components and (b) the mesh for the three-layer geometry for the skull in the impact zone

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Fig. 3

(a) The defleshed head impacts a rigid wall at 45 deg, and (b) the impact location changes from A to B when the skin and flesh are absent

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Fig. 4

Frontal impact of (a) hemispherical-nose and (b) flat-nose projectile

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Fig. 5

Free- or fixed-boundary conditions applied to the bottom surface of the cylindrical bone

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Fig. 6

The stress–strain curves for the skull components

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Fig. 7

The rigid-wall force for various impact velocities

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Fig. 8

Time history of brain rigid-body velocity

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Fig. 9

Time history of pressure along the impact line in: (a) skin/flesh, bone, and CSF and (b) brain

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Fig. 10

The locations for the pressure

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Fig. 11

The peak pressure along the impact line

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Fig. 12

In-plane strain and normal strain for (a) top cortical bone surface and (b) bottom cortical bone surface

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Fig. 13

Curved coordinates for top cortical and bottom cortical

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Fig. 14

Time history of rigid-wall force for various failure models

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Fig. 15

Bone failures for (a) “no failure,” (b) “fluid,” (c) “erosion,” and (d) “SPH” case

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Fig. 16

The time history of pressure in the brain modeling skull failure with (a) no failure, (b) fluid, (c) erosion, and (d) SPH

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Fig. 17

Time histories of rigid wall force for various impact velocities with and without skin and flesh

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Fig. 18

Time histories of pressure along the impact line in the brain for defleshed head case

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Fig. 19

Time histories of rigid-wall force in defleshed head

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Fig. 20

The failures in the impact zone for (a) full head and (b) defleshed head

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Fig. 21

The time history of force to the head impacted by a (a) hemispherical-nose and (b) flat-nose projectile for fixed and free-boundary conditions

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Fig. 22

The time history of pressure in the brain when the head is impacted by a (a) hemispherical-nose and (b) flat-nose projectile for fixed-and free-boundary conditions

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Fig. 23

The fractures at 1.3 ms in the skull for (a) “erosion” and (b) “SPH” case

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Fig. 24

The fractures at 1.3 ms in the defleshed head (a) impacted against a rigid wall, impacted by a (b) flat-nose projectile, free boundary conditions, (c) flat-nose projectile, fixed boundary conditions, (d) hemispherical-nose projectile, free boundary conditions, and (e) hemispherical-nose projectile, fixed boundary conditions

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