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Research Papers

Door Latch Failure Risk Identification Using Virtual Testing Methods

[+] Author and Article Information
Keith Friedman

Mem. ASME
Friedman Research Corporation,
1508-B Ferguson Lane,
Austin, TX 78754
e-mail: kfriedman@friedmanresearch.com

Khanh Bui

Friedman Research Corporation,
1508-B Ferguson Lane,
Austin, TX 78754
e-mail: kbui@friedmanresearch.com

John Hutchinson

Friedman Research Corporation,
1508-B Ferguson Lane,
Austin, TX 78754
e-mail: jhutchinson@friedmanresearch.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 5, 2017; final manuscript received August 14, 2017; published online December 5, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Chimba Mkandawire.

ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Part B 4(3), 031001 (Dec 05, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: RISK-17-1053; doi: 10.1115/1.4037725 History: Received April 05, 2017; Revised August 14, 2017

Vehicle door latch performance testing presently utilizes uniaxial quasi-static loading conditions. Current technology enables sophisticated virtual testing of a broad range of systems. Door latch failures have been observed in vehicles under a variety of conditions. Typically, these conditions involve multi-axis loading conditions. The loading conditions presented during rollovers on passenger vehicle side door latches have not been published. Rollover crash test results, rollover crashes, and physical Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 206 latch testing results are reviewed. The creation and validation of a passenger vehicle door latch model is described. The multi-axis loading conditions observed in virtual rollover testing at the latch location are characterized and applied to the virtual testing of a latch in the secondary latch position. The results are then compared with crash test and real world rollover results for the same latch. The results indicate that a door latch that meets the secondary latch position requirements may fail at loads substantially below the FMVSS 206 uniaxial failure loads. In the side impact mode, risks associated with door handle designs and the potential for inertial release can be considered prior to manufacturing with virtual testing. An example case showing the effects of material and spring selection illustrates the potential issues that can be detected in advance of manufacturing. The findings suggest the need for re-examining the relevance of existing door latch testing practices in light of the prevalence of rollover impacts and other impact conditions in today's vehicle fleet environment.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Doors , Stress , Testing , Failure , Vehicles
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References

NHTSA, 2004, “ FMVSS 206 NPRM Docket 2004-19840,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, Standard No. RIN 2127-AH34.
Gilberg, A. , Buckingham, J. , McSwain, R. , and Paulitz, D. , 2004, “ Door Latch Vulnerability to Rollover Induced Loads,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-0737.
DeHaven, H. , 1952, “ Accidental Survival—Airplane and Passenger Car,” SAE Paper No. 520016.
Moore, J. O. , and Tourin, B. , 1954, “ A Study of Automobile Doors Opening Under Crash Conditions,” U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations (ACIR), Washington, DC.
Severy, D. M. , Mathewson, J. H. , and Siegel, A. W. , 1962, “ Automobile Side-Impact Collisions, Series II,” SAE Paper No. 620149.
Society of Automotive Engineers, 1998, “ Passenger Car Side Door Latch Systems,” SAE Standard No. J839B_196505. http://standards.sae.org/j839b_196505/
Cox, H. C. , and Norman, A. E. , 1967, “ The Design of Automobile Door Latches,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.: Automob. Div., 182(1), pp. 137–148.
Blaisdell, D. , Stephens, G. , and Meissner, U. , 1994, “ Collision Performance of Automotive Door Systems,” SAE Paper No. 940562.
Gilberg, A. , Marcosky, J. , Sherman, L. , and Clarke, R. , 1998, “ Door Latch Strength in a Car Body Environment,” SAE Paper No. 980028.
Carter, W. J. , Habberstad, J. L. , and Croteau, J. , 2002, “ A Comparison of the Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) With the J2114 Rollover Dolly,” SAE Paper No. 2002-01-0694.
Attridge, A. , Walton, D. , and Kalsi, G. , 2002, “ Developments in Car Door Latching Systems,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 216(10), pp. 819–830. [CrossRef]
Jankowski, K. P. , and Kamal, E. , 2004, “ Vehicle Door Latch Safety Measures Based on System Dynamics,” SAE Paper No. 2004-01-1177.
Gilberg, A. , Buckingham, J. , and Clarke, R. , 2009, “ Evaluating Self-Unlocking Doors in Rollover Accidents Using a Shock Testing Machine,” SAE Paper No. 2009-01-0073.
Nelsen, J. , and Seo, C. S. , 2014, “ An Improved Methodology for Calculation of the Inertial Resistance of Automotive Latching Systems,” SAE Paper No. 2014-01-0544.
Kahane, C. , 1989, “ An Evaluation of Door Locks and Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars—Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards 206 and 216,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. DOT HS 807 489. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/807489
NHTSA, 1995, “ Memorandum Regarding Public Meeting on Potential Upgrade of FMVSS 206,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, Standard No. 206.
Friedman, K. , Hutchinson, J. , and Mihora, D. , 2008, “ Finite Element Modeling of Rollover Crash Tests With Hybrid III Dummies,” SAE Paper No. 2008-01-1123.
Kecman, D. , and Tidbury, G. , 1985, “ Optimization of a Bus Superstructure From the Rollover Safety Point of View,” Tenth International Technical Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles, Oxford, UK, July 1–4, pp 914–918.
NHTSA, 2010, “ Buying a Safer Car,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, Standard No. DOT HS 811 360. https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0ahUKEwjo98Kkn9nWAhWL3YMKHVm4CigQFggrMAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.safercar.gov%2Fstaticfiles%2Fsafercar%2Fpdf%2F811360.pdf&usg=AOvVaw2Gzyitwz9U4LljSD2OsMW9

Figures

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Fig. 1

Example open and closed door latch parts as defined in Gilberg

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Fig. 2

Physical and finite element model latch in the primary latch position

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Fig. 3

Physical and finite element model latch in the secondary latch position

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Fig. 4

Graduated mesh in the area of the door cutout transitioning to the latch

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Fig. 5

Mesh in the curved area of the striker in areas for potential latch contact

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Fig. 6

Fork bolt and detent lever solid mesh with sizes about 0.2 mm in the contact areas with a closer view on the right

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Fig. 7

Example validation test setup. Latch supported by backing plates and displacement applied to striker.

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Fig. 8

Latch in door model for comparison with FMVSS 206 testing and combined loading testing

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Fig. 9

Example passenger side leading rollover simulation

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Fig. 10

Example latch failure in a rollover with the fishmouth opened about 6 mm vertically

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Fig. 11

Example rollover test latch showing widened fishmouth

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Fig. 12

Example door system model

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Fig. 13

Example of longitudinal loading test with thinner backing plate

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Fig. 14

Example of FMVSS 206 type longitudinal loading in the door

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Fig. 15

Example illustration of distortion under three axis loading

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Fig. 16

Fishmouth opening in rollover crash vehicle with latch

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Fig. 17

Indentation on fishmouth in rollover crash vehicle

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Fig. 18

Example far side door handle motion and latch release under the effects of side impact loading with the localized amplification effects

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Fig. 19

Door latch response from baseline (left) and alternative door handle design (right) with alternative materials and spring characteristics, eliminating latch release

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