The present paper focuses on the resilience of 3-hole pressure probes to hot sand fouling in turbomachinery environments. These probes are utilized inside jet engine hot sections for diagnostics and flow characterization. Ingestion of sand and other particulates pose a significant risk to hot section components and measurement devices in gas turbine engines. In this study, wedge, cylindrical, and trapezoidal probes were exposed to hot section turbine aerothermal conditions of 1050°C and 65–70 m/s flow velocity and fouled with 0–5 μm Arizona Road Dust (ARD). Sand accumulated more rapidly on the surface of the trapezoidal and cylindrical probe geometries than on the surface of the wedge probe geometry.

Probe calibrations following sand fouling were performed in an ambient temperature, open air, calibration jet at Mach 0.3 and 0.5. Calibration curves using non-dimensional coefficients were used to assess probe error in yaw angle due to sand fouling. Probe error was based on each probe’s ability to accurately measure flow direction over a flow angle range of [−10°, 10°]. On average, the probes displayed greater error at Mach 0.5 than Mach 0.3. The wedge probe performed the best after sand fouling and displayed a maximum error of less than ±2° in yaw angle. In contrast, the cylindrical probe performed the worst after sand fouling and displayed maximum errors of more than ±8° in yaw angle. Transient response did not change notably with sand fouling.

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