Pressure gain combustion (PGC) is considered to be a potential technology to increase the cycle efficiency of gas turbine. As one viable candidate for PGC, rotating detonation engine (RDE) draws more attention due to its significant advances in continuous mode of operation. In practical, one of the basic challenges for RDE application is to reliably initiate detonation wave. For this purpose, both detonation initiation mechanism and enhancement approach are urgently needed to be understood. In this work, a toroidal shock wave focusing detonation initiator is presented. On this basis, the two-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the detonation initiation characteristics by using the toroidal shock wave focusing. All of the flame acceleration, shock wave focusing, detonation wave forming and propagation are analyzed in detail. The numerical results show that the toroidal shock wave focusing initiator developed in this study can rapidly realize the detonation initiation over a short distance and performs significantly better than the traditional smooth or obstructed tube based imitators under different operating conditions. Under the same operating condition, the novel developed initiator decreases time of 59.2% and distance of 84.7% for the smooth tube based initiator, and time of 52% and distance of 78.9% for the obstructed one. Besides, the multi-fields analysis indicates that both the local explosion induced by shock wave focusing in concave cavity and the entrainment vortex generated by shock wave and jet flame in front of diaphragm are important mechanisms to initiate detonation wave. The present study is expected to enhance the understanding of the physical mechanism of shock wave focusing detonation initiation and contribute to the development of detonation propulsion technology.

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