Reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to ultra-low levels is facilitated by enabling low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies. However, there is a significant energy penalty in terms of combustion efficiency as evidenced by the accompanying high levels of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen emissions. In this work, the net fuel energy lost as a result of incomplete combustion in two different LTC regimes is studied. The first LTC strategy, partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI), is investigated using a single, high pressure, in-cylinder injection of diesel fuel along with the application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The second strategy includes dual-fuel application – reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) of port injected gasoline and direct injected diesel. Moderate to high levels of EGR are necessary during engine operation in either of the two LTC pathways. A detailed analysis of the incomplete combustion products was conducted while the engine was operated in the aforementioned LTC modes. Speciation analysis of hydrocarbons was performed by sampling the exhaust gas in an FTIR. The total HC and the CO emissions were simultaneously measured using an FID and an NDIR, respectively. The production of hydrogen during the combustion process was also evaluated using a mass spectrometer. Engine tests were conducted at a baseline load level of 10 bar IMEP in the PPCI and RCCI modes. Load extension tests, up to 17 bar IMEP, were then conducted in the RCCI mode by increasing the gasoline-to-diesel fuel ratio. Test results indicated that CO, H2, and light HC made up for most of the combustion in-efficiency in the PPCI mode while heavier HC and aromatics were significantly higher in the RCCI mode.

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