This paper studies the chattering-free finite-time control for a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems. First, a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems with external disturbances is presented. Second, a new finite-time terminal sliding mode control method is proposed for the stability control of a class of fractional-order nonlinear systems by combining the finite-time stability theory and sliding mode control scheme. Third, by designing a controller with a differential form and introducing the arc tangent function, the chattering phenomenon is well suppressed. Additionally, a controller is developed to resist external disturbances. Finally, numerical simulations are implemented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.