Raman spectroscopy is typically used to characterize graphene in experiments and also to measure properties like thermal conductivity and optical phonon lifetime. The laser-irradiation processes underlying this measurement technique include coupling between photons, electrons and phonons. Recent experimental studies have shown that e-ph scattering limits the performance of graphene-based electronic devices due to the difference in their timescales of relaxation resulting in various bottleneck effects. Furthermore, recently published thermal conductivity measurements on graphene are sensitive to the laser spot size which strengthens the possibility of non-equilibrium between various phonon groups. These studies point to the need to study the spatially-resolved non-equilibrium between various energy carriers in graphene. In this work, we demonstrate non-equilibrium in the e-ph interactions in graphene by solving the linearized electron and phonon Boltzmann transport equations (BTE) iteratively under steady state conditions. We start by assuming that all the electrons equilibrate rapidly to an elevated temperature under laser-irradiation and they gradually relax by phonon emission and reach a steady state. The electron and phonon BTEs are coupled because the e-ph scattering rate depends on the phonon population while the rate of phonon generation depends on the e-ph scattering rate. We used density-functional theory/density-functional perturbation theory (DFT/DFPT) to calculate the electronic eigen states, phonon frequencies and the e-ph coupling matrix elements. We calculated the rate of energy loss from the hot electrons in terms of the phonon generation rate (PGR) which serve as an input for solving the BTE. Likewise, ph-ph relaxation times are calculated from the anharmonic lattice dynamics (LD)/FGR. Through our work, we obtained the spatially resolved temperature profiles of all the relevant energy carriers throughout the entire domain; these are impossible to obtain through experiments.
A Study of Spatially-Resolved Non-Equilibrium in Laser-Irradiated Graphene Using Boltzmann Transport Equation
Vallabhaneni, AK, Loy, J, Singh, D, Ruan, X, & Murthy, J. "A Study of Spatially-Resolved Non-Equilibrium in Laser-Irradiated Graphene Using Boltzmann Transport Equation." Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 8C: Heat Transfer and Thermal Engineering. San Diego, California, USA. November 15–21, 2013. V08CT09A020. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2013-66095
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