A number of activities subject the spinal cord  to various loading conditions that lead to disc degeneration. In this paper a brief overview on the understanding of the micromechanics and mechanisms of intervertebral disc degeneration is presented and extended to include water loss and disc height change. The focus is on a computational model of the intervertebral disc degeneration that attempts to capture the initiation and the progression of the damage mechanism under fatigue. This model can be used to study the effects on disc under short or long period biomechanical loading in work or combat environments.
Towards a Micromechanical Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Under Cyclic Loading
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Makwana, AR, Krishna, AR, Yuan, H, Kraft, RH, Zhou, X, Przekwas, AJ, & Whitley, P. "Towards a Micromechanical Model of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Under Cyclic Loading." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 3: Biomedical and Biotechnology Engineering. Montreal, Quebec, Canada. November 14–20, 2014. V003T03A012. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2014-39174
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