In today’s networking world, utilization of servers and data centers has been increasing significantly. Increasing demand of processing and storage of data causes a corresponding increase in power density of servers. The data center energy efficiency largely depends on thermal management of servers. Currently, air cooling is the most widely used thermal management technology in data centers. However, air cooling has started to reach its limits due to high-powered processors. To overcome these limitations of air cooling in data centers, liquid immersion cooling methods using different dielectric fluids can be a viable option. Thermal shadowing is an effect in which temperature of a cooling medium increases by carrying heat from one source and results in decreasing its heat carrying capacity due to reduction in the temperature difference between the maximum junction temperature of successive heat sink and incoming fluid. Thermal Shadowing is a challenge for both air and low velocity oil flow cooling. In this study, the impact of thermal shadowing in a third-generation open compute server using different dielectric fluids is compared. The heat sink is a critical part for cooling effectiveness at server level. This work also provides an efficient range of heat sinks with computational modelling of third generation open compute server. Optimization of heat sink can allow to cool high-power density servers effectively for single-phase immersion cooling applications. A parametric study is conducted, and significant savings in the volume of a heat sink have been reported.

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