Based on systematic three-dimensional (3-D), large strain FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, this paper quantifies the effect of local wall thinning on plastic behaviors and TES (twice-elastic-slope) plastic loads for 90° elbows under in-plane bending. The thinning geometry is assumed to be rectangular rather than circular, but the nonlinear geometry effect is fully considered. Results from systematic analyses lead to simple approximations for TES plastic loads, covering a wide range of elbow and thinning geometries.

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