This paper describes finite element (FE) modelling and neutron diffraction (ND) measurements to investigate the development of residual stresses in two different geometries of ferritic weld. All specimens were produced using SA508 Grade 3 steel plates, depositing a low carbon SD3 weld filler by mechanised TIG welding. The FE analyses were carried out using Abaqus/VFT and the behaviour of the SA508 steel was modelled using a simplified (Leblond) phase transformation model with isotropic hardening using VFT’s UMAT-WELD subroutine, which includes the change in volume due to phase transformation. Single bead-on-plate specimens were manufactured using a range of mechanised TIG welding parameters. One pass and three pass groove welds were also produced, in order to investigate the cyclic hardening behaviour of the materials, as well as phase transformation effects in a multi-pass weld. FE analyses were then performed to determine how accurately these effects could be modelled. During manufacture, a number of thermocouples were attached to each of the specimens in order to calibrate the heat input to the FE models. The residual stresses in each of the bead on plate welds, as well as the groove weld after the first and the third passes, were then measured using ND at the middle of the plate. The ND measurements for the three pass weld showed no significant cyclic hardening behaviour although some was predicted by the FE analysis. Another key finding of the FE modelling that was seen in all of the models was that the phase transformation acts to reduce the stress levels in the deposited weld metal leaving the largest tensile stresses in a ring at the outer edge of the full heat affected zone (HAZ). There are plans to refine the FE studies using improved material properties when material testing of SA508 and SD3 are completed in the near future.

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