Not only nonmandatory Appendix C, “Evaluation of Flaws in Piping,” in ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section XI but also Appendix E-9, “Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Evaluation,” in the JSME Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants use the load multiplier Z-factor that is applied to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics evaluation for a circumferential flaw of austenitic stainless steel piping and ferritic steel piping. The Z-factor is defined as the ratio of the limit load to the load at fracture load. Basically, the Z-factor equations were conservatively formulated by using the Z-factors for circumferential through-wall flaws. However, the Codes require flaw evaluation for circumferential surface flaws. Accordingly, Z-factors for circumferential surface flaws should be developed to have the consistency. Therefore Z-factor equations of austenitic stainless steel piping and ferritic steel piping have been developed for circumferential surface flaws.
Development of Load Multipliers (Z-Factors) in Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Evaluation in Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants
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Asada, S, Itatani, M, Miura, N, & Machida, H. "Development of Load Multipliers (Z-Factors) in Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Evaluation in Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants." Proceedings of the ASME 2012 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. Volume 1: Codes and Standards. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. July 15–19, 2012. pp. 773-781. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/PVP2012-78021
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