The fire process was simulated by the heat treatment to the Steel SPV490 of atmospheric storage tank, thereby obtaining the metal specimens in different fire temperature, holding time, and cooling modes. And as the temperature increases, the microscopic structure of Steel SPV490 changes under different working conditions, which could be shown in optical microstructure pictures after doing the interception, inlay, polishing, finishing to the specimens. The result shows that, the mechanical properties of the Steel SPV490 for storage tank changes as the temperature rising from the microscopic view. Nodulizing of the cementite in pearlite occurs, and the strength decreases when the high strength steel SPV490 of large atmospheric storage tanks under air cooling condition below 700 °C, however, it equivalents to the normalizing process, as the sorbite occurs in the steel, and the strength increases a bit when the temperature is above 900 °C. The water-cooling of steel SPV490 above 900 °C equivalents to the process of quenching. The occurrence of martensitic substantially increases the strength and the brittleness, and the elongation decreases rapidly.

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