This paper describes the methods and criteria for the numerical analysis of damage caused by tornado missiles to steel stacks. The paper will describe the range of classic design-basis tornado missiles, the target steel stacks, and the key parameters that affect the analysis. The models of missile and targets will be addressed, as well as the benchmark of calculated damage compared to experimental data. Strain-based material models and strain-based criteria will be described, to predict the various failure modes and the structural and functional damage criteria.

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