Due to enormous computation cost, current residual stress simulation of multipass girth welds are mostly performed using two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric models. The 2D model can only provide limited estimation on the residual stresses by assuming its axisymmetric distribution. In this study, a highly efficient thermal-mechanical finite element code for three dimensional (3D) model has been developed based on high performance Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) computers. Our code is further accelerated by considering the unique physics associated with welding processes that are characterized by steep temperature gradient and a moving arc heat source. It is capable of modeling large-scale welding problems that cannot be easily handled by the existing commercial simulation tools. To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency, our code was compared with a commercial software by simulating a 3D multi-pass girth weld model with over 1 million elements. Our code achieved comparable solution accuracy with respect to the commercial one but with over 100 times saving on computational cost. Moreover, the three-dimensional analysis demonstrated more realistic stress distribution that is not axisymmetric in hoop direction.

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