Equivalent Single Crack (ESC) sizes are provided in ASME Code, Section XI, Nonmandatory Appendix L, Tables L-3210-1 (for ferritic piping) and L-3210-2 (for austenitic piping). These two tables define initial flaw aspect ratios for use in fatigue flaw tolerance evaluations. These ESC sizes were based on the results of probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) evaluations that determined the equivalent single crack size that resulted in the same probability of through-wall leakage as the case when multiple cracks are initiated and grown around the inner circumference of a pipe. The PFM software, pc-PRAISE, used for the evaluation of ESC sizes had fracture mechanics models based on available data and models in the early 2000s. The stress intensity factor solutions used in pc-PRAISE were generated for a pipe radius-to-thickness ratio, Ri/t, of 5, and used a root-mean-square (RMS) averaged methodology. And the crack growth model was based on NUREG/CR-2189, Volume 5.
This paper presents the results of evaluations to calculate a limited number of ESC sizes using updated fracture mechanics models for stress intensity factor and fatigue crack growth rates. The effect of crack growth due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in determining the ESCs is also discussed. The impact of the revised ESCs by performing two sample fatigue flaw tolerance problems and the associated results are also presented and discussed in this paper.