Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle has become the main direction of hydrogen energy utilization because of its advantages of zero emission, short hydrogenation time, long driving range and high efficiency. High pressure hydrogen storage cylinder is one of the key components of hydrogen fuel cell system. Because the temperature of the gas cylinder increases sharply during the rapid hydrogen filling process, and the temperature drops sharply during the hydrogen release process, the drastic temperature change will reduce the fatigue life of the cylinder, which has an important impact on the safety and stability of the whole system. At present, it is necessary to further study the thermodynamic characteristics of gas cylinders in the process of hydrogen filling and discharging. According to the filling and discharging process of high pressure hydrogen cycle, the change and distribution of pressure and temperature and the streamline change in the high pressure cylinder during the process of hydrogen filling and discharging are studied. The pressure and temperature control strategy of high-pressure tank, precooler, test cylinder and low-pressure tank in the process of hydrogen filling and discharging were discussed, and a more safe and effective hydrogen filling and discharging optimization control measure was put forward. This study is of great significance for the stability and safe operation of high pressure hydrogen storage system in the field of hydrogen energy.