Mechanical stimuli influence vascular cell functions related to remodeling. The effect of mechanical environment on cell functions has been studied at tissue and cell levels. Tissue level studies provide the distribution of biological responses of cells in their natural environment. Cell culture studies provide better control of mechanical stimuli applied to cells in an artificial environment. Since mechanical stress and strain cannot be measured in situ, mathematical models are necessary to interpret results from tissue level studies using relationships established in cell culture studies.

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