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Journal Articles
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Single-track vehicle model. ( F   xf  ,  F   yf  ,  F   xr  , and  F   yr  ...
Published Online: November 11, 2022
Fig. 1 Single-track vehicle model. ( F xf , F yf , F xr , and F yr ) are the forces in the vehicle body-fixed frame, ( F lf , F cf , F lr , and F cr ) are the forces in the tire-fixed frame, ϕ ˙ is the rotational velocity about the CG, and ( y ˙ ... More
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Lateral tire force model: ( a ) characteristic curve between tire slip angl...
Published Online: November 11, 2022
Fig. 2 Lateral tire force model: ( a ) characteristic curve between tire slip angle and lateral tire force and ( b ) rear tire model, based on previous control step k -1, rear slip angles ( α ¯ r i | k , i = 1, 2, 3) predictions, represented by heavy dot marker with potential... More
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Stability envelope. A closed bounded set represented by the yaw rate and la...
Published Online: November 11, 2022
Fig. 3 Stability envelope. A closed bounded set represented by the yaw rate and lateral velocity (CP) bounds in a yaw rate versus lateral velocity phase plane. Examples of two safe trajectories of the vehicle that adhered to the safety envelope. More
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Illustration of robust collision constraints development process at a contr...
Published Online: November 11, 2022
Fig. 4 Illustration of robust collision constraints development process at a controller execution step k . Vehicle assumed to have longitudinal speed x ˙ p = 20 m / s : ( a ) active constraints, el (1), el (2), l (1), l (2), and l (3) represent active constraints in th... More
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The block diagram of robust model predictive control for obstacle avoidance...
Published Online: November 11, 2022
Fig. 5 The block diagram of robust model predictive control for obstacle avoidance and path tracking system of autonomous vehicle More
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Test case: Curved road,        x  ˙     p   =  18    m  /  s    , obstacle ...
Published Online: November 11, 2022
Fig. 6 Test case: Curved road, x ˙ p = 18 m / s , obstacle at prediction horizon. Both controllers are able to avoid the obstacle and return to the prescribed path because of early obstacle detection: ( a ) global reference frame, ( b ) lateral error, ( c ) steering angle in... More
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Test case: Curved road,        x  ˙     p   =  18    m/s, pop-up obstacle a...
Published Online: November 11, 2022
Fig. 7 Test case: Curved road, x ˙ p = 18 m/s, pop-up obstacle at t = 1.4 s. RMPC is able to avoid the obstacle and return to the prescribed path, whereas, DMPC failed to find a collision-free path: ( a ) lateral error, ( b ) steering angle input, ( c ) lateral acceleration, an... More
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Test case: Straight road,        x  ˙    p    =  18    m/s, pop-up obstacle...
Published Online: November 11, 2022
Fig. 8 Test case: Straight road, x ˙ p = 18 m/s, pop-up obstacle at t = 1.4 s, μ act = 0.35, and μ c = 0.55. RMPC able to avoid the obstacle but failed to satisfy the road boundary and overshoot requirements. DMPC failed to find a collision-free path: ( a ) lateral er... More
Journal Articles
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HDL-32E hit rate averaged over 100-frame experimental blocks. The lines con...
Published Online: November 7, 2022
Fig. 5 HDL-32E hit rate averaged over 100-frame experimental blocks. The lines connect average hit rates within an experimental condition with everything except the target reflectivity holding fixed. For example, a downward-sloping line indicates that increasing target reflectivity decreased avera... More
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HDL-32E total returned beam count across experimental groups, adjusted for ...
Published Online: November 7, 2022
Fig. 6 HDL-32E total returned beam count across experimental groups, adjusted for distance, shaded by the number of stems in the patch. The plot shows lowest counts of returned beams are from the patches with the highest stem count, and the highest counts of returned beams are from the patches wit... More
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HDL-32E: ( a ) A sampling of unadjusted beam counts by frame and laser and ...
Published Online: November 7, 2022
Fig. 7 HDL-32E: ( a ) A sampling of unadjusted beam counts by frame and laser and ( b ) a sampling of hit proportions of the same four groups. The VLP-16 was qualitatively similar. De stands for density level, P for patch number, T for target reflectivity, and Di for distance. This plot shows rela... More
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VLP-16 hit rate averaged over 100-frame experimental blocks. Target reflect...
Published Online: November 7, 2022
Fig. 8 VLP-16 hit rate averaged over 100-frame experimental blocks. Target reflectivity showed a consistent increase of beams returned from the target, and density differences are clear. For further explanation on this plot, see the caption of Fig. 5 . More
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VLP-16 total returned beam count across experimental groups, adjusted for d...
Published Online: November 7, 2022
Fig. 9 VLP-16 total returned beam count across experimental groups, adjusted for distance, shaded by the number of stems in the patch. The relationship between stem count and returned beams detected is even clearer than in Fig. 6 . More
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One interaction of target and distance changing as patches vary between low...
Published Online: November 7, 2022
Fig. 10 One interaction of target and distance changing as patches vary between low density (left panel) and high density (right panel). While low-density patches (left) showed a similarly decreasing hit rate with target reflectivity at both distances, high-density patches (right) at a close dista... More