The mechanism of atomization of part of the liquid film to form drops in annular two-phase flow is not entirely understood. It has been observed that drop creation only occurs when there are large disturbance waves present on the film interface. (Woodmansee and Harrantty, 1969, “Mechanisms for the Removal of Droplets From a Liquid Surface by a Parallel Air Flow,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 24, pp. 299–307) observed that ripples on these waves were precursors to drops. Though it has been reported that drops occur in bursts by (Azzopardi, Gas-Liquid Flows Begell House Inc., New York, 2006), all previous drop size or concentration measurements have always been time integrated to simplify data analysis. Dynamic time averaged drop size measurements are reported for the first time in annular flow. Experiments were carried out on a 19 mm internal diameter vertical pipe with air and water as fluids. Spraytec, a laser diffraction-based, drop size measurement instrument, was used in the drop related data acquisition. Simultaneous time-resolved measurements were carried out for drop, film thickness, and pressure drop. Film thickness has been measured using the conductance probes employing a pair of flush mounted rings as electrodes. Pressure drop was logged using differential pressure cell connected to two pressure taps located within the test section. The gas superficial velocity was varied systematically from 13 to 43 m/s at fixed liquid superficial velocities of 0.05 and 0.15 m/s, respectively. Additional tests were carried out with the gas velocity fixed at 14 m/s while the liquid superficial velocity was varied from 0.03 to 0.18 m/s. Signal acquired are presented in form of time series to permit data analysis at different levels. Based on signal analysis, interrelationships between liquid film where the drops are sourced and the contribution of the entrained liquid droplets to the overall pressure drop in the system has been elucidated. Though structures are not clearly visible in the signals acquired, the time series have been analyzed in amplitude space to yield probability density function (Pdf). Beyond gas superficial velocity of 30 m/s, Pdf of drop size distribution becomes monomodal or single-peaked marking transition to mist annular flow.
Simultaneous Investigation of Entrained Liquid Fraction, Liquid Film Thickness and Pressure Drop in Vertical Annular Flow
Alamu, M. B., and Azzopardi, B. J. (June 27, 2011). "Simultaneous Investigation of Entrained Liquid Fraction, Liquid Film Thickness and Pressure Drop in Vertical Annular Flow." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. June 2011; 133(2): 023103. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4004265
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