Ammonia, when blended with hydrocarbon fuels, can be used as a composite fuel to power existing internal combustion (IC) engines. Feasibility of developing ammonia gasoline liquid fuel blends and the use of ethanol as an emulsifier to enhance the solubility of ammonia in gasoline were studied using a small thermostated vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) high-pressure cell. Engine dynamometer tests were conducted for developed fuel blends to measure the performance. Gasoline with 30% ethanol can retain 17.35% of ammonia in the liquid phase by volume basis. Engine dynamometer results show ammonia-rich fuels result in an increased torque and power output especially at higher engine speeds.
Ammonia and Gasoline Fuel Blends for Spark Ignited Internal Combustion Engines
Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 8, 2014; final manuscript received April 17, 2015; published online May 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Avinash Kumar Agarwal.
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Haputhanthri, S. O., Maxwell, T. T., Fleming, J., and Austin, C. (November 1, 2015). "Ammonia and Gasoline Fuel Blends for Spark Ignited Internal Combustion Engines." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. November 2015; 137(6): 062201. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4030443
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