Abstract

Meeting energy demands at crucial times can often be jeopardized by an unreliable power supply from the grid. Local, onsite power generation, such as combined heat and power (CHP) systems, may safeguard against grid fluctuations and outages. CHP systems can provide a more reliable and resilient energy supply to buildings and communities while it can also provide energy-efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable solutions compared to centralized power systems. With a recent increased focus on biomass as an alternative fuel source, biomass-driven CHP systems have been recognized as a potential technology to bring increased efficiency of fuel utilization and environmentally sustainable solutions. Biomass as an energy source is already created through agricultural and forestry by-products and may thus be efficient and convenient to be transported to remote rural communities. This paper presents a design and feasibility analysis of biomass-driven CHP systems for rural communities. The viability of wood pellets as a suitable fuel source is explored by comparing it to a conventional grid-connected system. To measure viability, three performance parameters—operational cost (OC), primary energy consumption (PEC), and carbon dioxide emission (CDE)—are considered in the analysis. The results demonstrate that under the right conditions wood pellet-fueled CHP systems create economic and environmental advantages over traditional systems. The main factors in increasing the viability of biomass-driven CHP (bCHP) systems are the appropriate sizing and operational strategies of the system and the purchase price of biomass with respect to the price of traditional fuels.

References

1.
Cho
,
H.
,
Smith
,
A. D.
, and
Mago
,
P.
,
2014
, “
Combined Cooling, Heating and Power: A Review of Performance Improvement and Optimization
,”
Appl. Energy
,
136
, pp.
168
185
.
2.
Liu
,
M.
,
Shi
,
Y.
, and
Fang
,
F.
,
2013
, “
Optimal Power Flow and PGU Capacity of CCHP Systems Using a Matrix Modeling Approach
,”
Appl. Energy
,
102
, pp.
794
802
.
3.
Liu
,
M.
,
Shi
,
Y.
, and
Fang
,
F.
,
2014
, “
Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems: A Survey
,”
Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.
,
35
, pp.
1
22
.
4.
Akorede
,
M. F.
,
Hizam
,
H.
, and
Pouresmaeil
,
E.
,
2010
, “
Distributed Energy Resources and Benefits to the Environment
,”
Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.
,
14
(
2
), pp.
724
734
.
5.
Çakir
,
U.
,
Çomakli
,
K.
, and
Yüksel
,
F.
,
2012
, “
The Role of Cogeneration Systems in Sustainability of Energy
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
63
, pp.
196
202
.
6.
Cho
,
H.
,
Luck
,
R.
,
Mago
,
P. J.
, and
Chamra
,
L. M.
,
2009
, “
Assessment of CHP System Performance With Commercial Building
,”
ASME 2009 3rd international Conference on Energy Sustainability
,
San Francisco, CA
,
July 19–23
, Vol. 48906, pp.
81
96
.
7.
Action Energy
,
2004
, “
Combined Heat and Power for Buildings—Selecting, Installing and Operating CHP in Buildings—A Guide for Building Services Engineers
,” http://library1.nida.ac.th/termpaper6/sd/2554/19755.pdf
8.
Cho
,
H.
,
Luck
,
R.
, and
Chamra
,
L. M.
,
2010
, “
Supervisory Feed-Forward Control for Real-Time Topping Cycle CHP Operation
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
132
(
1
), p.
012401
.
9.
E
.
Mollenhauer
,
A.
Christidis
, and
G.
Tsatsaronis
,
2018
, “
Increasing the Flexibility of Combined Heat and Power Plants with Heat Pumps and Thermal Energy Storage
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
140
(
2
), p.
020907
.
10.
Sanaye
,
S.
, and
Shokrollahi
,
S.
,
2004
, “
Selection and Sizing of Prime Movers in Combined Heat and Power Systems
,”
Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2004
,
Vienna, Austria
,
June 14–17
, Vol. 4, pp.
613
621
.
11.
Union of Concerned Scientists
,
2014
, “
Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas
,” https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/environmental-impacts-natural-gas#references
12.
Carriquiry
,
M. A.
,
Du
,
X.
, and
Timilsina
,
G. R.
,
2011
, “
Second Generation Biofuels: Economics and Policies
,”
Energy Policy
,
39
(
7
), pp.
4222
4234
.
13.
Nanda
,
S.
,
Rana
,
R.
,
Sarangi
,
P. K.
,
Dalai
,
A. K.
, and
Kozinski
,
J. A.
,
2018
, “A Broad Introduction to First-, Second-, and Third-Generation Biofuels,”
Recent Advancements in Biofuels and Bioenergy Utilization
,
Springer Singapore
,
Singapore
, pp.
1
25
.
14.
Naik
,
S. N.
,
Goud
,
V. V.
,
Rout
,
P. K.
, and
Dalai
,
A. K.
,
2010
, “
Production of First and Second Generation Biofuels: A Comprehensive Review
,”
Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.
,
14
(
2
), pp.
578
597
.
15.
Varfolomeev
,
S. D.
,
Efremenko
,
E.
, and
Krylova
,
L.
,
2010
, “
Biofuels
,”
Russ. Chem. Rev.
,
79
(
6
), p.
491
509
.
16.
International Energy Agency
,
2019
, “
Renewables 2019
,” https://www.iea.org/reports/renewables-2019
17.
U.S. Energy Information Administration
,
2016
, “
New EIA Survey Collects Data on Production and Sales of Wood Pellets
,” https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=29152
18.
U.S. Energy Information Administration
,
2012
, “
Combined Heat and Power Technology Fills an Important Energy Niche
,” https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=8250
19.
Harrod
,
J.
,
Mago
,
P. J.
, and
Luck
,
R.
,
2012
, “
Sizing Analysis of a Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power System for a Small Office Building Using a Wood Waste Biomass-Fired Stirling Engine
,”
Int. J. Energy Res.
,
36
(
1
), pp.
64
74
.
20.
Herdem
,
M. S.
,
Lorena
,
G.
, and
Wen
,
J. Z.
,
2019
, “
Simulation and Performance Investigation of a Biomass Gasification System for Combined Power and Heat Generation
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
141
(
11
), p.
112002
.
21.
Salomón
,
M.
,
Savola
,
T.
,
Martin
,
A.
,
Fogelholm
,
C. J.
, and
Fransson
,
T.
,
2011
, “
Small-Scale Biomass CHP Plants in Sweden and Finland
,”
Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.
,
15
(
9
), pp.
4451
4465
.
22.
Patuzzi
,
F.
,
Prando
,
D.
,
Vakalis
,
S.
,
Rizzo
,
A. M.
,
Chiaramonti
,
D.
,
Tirler
,
W.
,
Mimmo
,
T.
,
Gasparella
,
A.
, and
Baratieri
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Small-Scale Biomass Gasification CHP Systems: Comparative Performance Assessment and Monitoring Experiences in South Tyrol (Italy)
,”
Energy
,
112
, pp.
285
293
.
23.
Wright
,
D. G.
,
Dey
,
P. K.
, and
Brammer
,
J.
,
2014
, “
A Barrier and Techno-Economic Analysis of Small-Scale bCHP (Biomass Combined Heat and Power) Schemes in the UK
,”
Energy
,
71
, pp.
332
345
.
24.
Strzalka
,
R.
,
Ulbrich
,
R.
, and
Eicker
,
U.
,
2008
, “
Operational Experiences and Optimisation of an ORC Biomass Cogeneration Plant
,”
Proceedings of the 16th European Biomass Conference
,
Valencia, Spain
,
June 2–6
, pp.
469
475
.
25.
Tańczuk
,
M.
, and
Ulbrich
,
R.
,
2013
, “
Implementation of a Biomass-Fired Co-generation Plant Supplied With an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) as a Heat Source for Small Scale Heat Distribution System—A Comparative Analysis Under Polish and German Conditions
,”
Energy
,
62
, pp.
132
141
.
26.
Obernberger
,
I.
,
Carlsen
,
H.
, and
Biedermann
,
F.
,
2003
, “
State-of-the-Art and Future Developments Regarding Small-Scale Biomass CHP Systems With a Special Focus on ORC and Stirling Engine Technologies
,”
Bioenergy 2003. International Nordic Bioenergy Conference
,
Jyväskylä. Finland
,
Sept. 2–5
.
28.
U.S. Department of Energy
,
2015
, “
Commercial Reference Buildings
,” http://energy.gov/eere/buildings/commercial-reference-buildings.
29.
U.S. Department of Energy
, “
Weather Data by Location
.” https://energyplus.net
30.
Baecheler
,
M. C.
,
Williamson
,
J.
,
Gilbride
,
T.
,
Cole
,
P.
,
Hefty
,
M.
, and
Love
,
P. M.
,
2007
, “Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory & Oak Ridge National Laboratory, https://www.pnnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-17211.pdf
31.
Best
,
I.
,
Orozaliev
,
J.
, and
Vajen
,
K.
,
2018
, “
Impact of Different Design Guidelines on the Total Distribution Costs of 4th Generation District Heating Networks
,”
Energy Procedia
,
149
, pp.
151
160
.
You do not currently have access to this content.