In Part I [Wei et al., 2004, 2004 ASME Int. Mech. Eng. Conference], we presented the experimental results for swirling flows of water and cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) surfactant solution in a cylindrical vessel with a rotating disk located at the bottom for a Reynolds number of around based on the viscosity of solvent. For the large Reynolds number, violent irregular instantaneous secondary flows at the meridional plane were observed by use of a particle image velocimetry system. Because of the limitations of our computer resources, we did not carry out direct numerical simulation for such a large Reynolds number. The LES and turbulence model are alternative methods, but a viscoelastic LES/turbulence model has not yet been developed for the surfactant solution. In this study, therefore, we limited our simulations to a laminar flow. The marker-and-cell method proposed for Newtonian flow was extended to the viscoelastic flow to track the free surface, and the effects of Weissenberg number and Froude number on the flow pattern and surface shape were studied. Although the Reynolds number is much smaller than that of the experiment, the major experimental observations, such as the inhibition of primary and secondary flows and the decrease of the dip of the free surface by the elasticity of the solution, were qualitatively reproduced in the numerical simulations.
Swirling Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid With Free Surface—Part II: Numerical Analysis With Extended Marker-and-Cell Method
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Yu, B., Wei, J., and Kawaguchi, Y. (August 20, 2005). "Swirling Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid With Free Surface—Part II: Numerical Analysis With Extended Marker-and-Cell Method." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. January 2006; 128(1): 77–87. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2136929
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