The effects of surface roughness on the aerodynamic performance of a turbine vane are investigated for three Mach number distributions, one of which results in transonic flow. Four turbine vanes, each with the same shape and exterior dimensions, are employed with different rough surfaces. The nonuniform, irregular, three-dimensional roughness on the tested vanes is employed to match the roughness which exists on operating turbine vanes subject to extended operating times with significant particulate deposition on the surfaces. Wake profiles are measured for two different positions downstream the vane trailing edge. The contributions of varying surface roughness to aerodynamic losses, Mach number profiles, normalized kinetic energy profiles, Integrated Aerodynamics Losses (IAL), area-averaged loss coefficients, and mass-averaged loss coefficients are quantified. Total pressure losses, Mach number deficits, and deficits of kinetic energy all increase at each profile location within the wake as the size of equivalent sandgrain roughness increases, provided the roughness on the surfaces is uniform. Corresponding Integrated Aerodynamic Loss IAL magnitudes increase either as Mach numbers along the airfoil are higher, or as the size of surface roughness increases. Data are also provided which illustrate the larger loss magnitudes which are present with flow turning and cambered airfoils, than with symmetric airfoils. Also described are wake broadening, profile asymmetry, and effects of increased turbulent diffusion, variable surface roughness, and streamwise development.
Influence of Surface Roughness on the Aerodynamic Losses of a Turbine Vane
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Zhang, Q., Goodro, M., Ligrani, P. M., Trindade, R., and Sreekanth, S. (October 16, 2005). "Influence of Surface Roughness on the Aerodynamic Losses of a Turbine Vane." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. May 2006; 128(3): 568–578. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2175163
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