This paper combines a theoretical model with experimental measurements to elucidate the role of key operating parameters affecting solder microdroplet deposition in the electronics manufacturing industry. The experimental investigation is used to evaluate the final deposit (bump) shapes and trends predicted by the model. The effects of substrate temperature, material composition, layer thickness, and thermal contact resistance (including surface oxidation) are delineated. Solder-deposit shape comparisons between experiments and modeling suggest that the value of thermal contact resistance may change with process parameters, and is probably dependent on the solder phase. It is established that inferences regarding the overall shape or solidification times of solder bumps using limited modeling trends should be made only after careful consideration of the substrate composition, accurate representation of the thermal contact resistance, and adequate resolution of the fluid dynamical oscillatory motion and its effects on solidification rates. It is shown that modeling tools can be used in conjunction with experiments to promote our fundamental understanding of the transport processes in the complex solder jetting technology.
An Investigation of Key Factors Affecting Solder Microdroplet Deposition
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Xiong, B., Megaridis, C. M., Poulikakos, D., and Hoang, H. (February 1, 1998). "An Investigation of Key Factors Affecting Solder Microdroplet Deposition." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. February 1998; 120(1): 259–270. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2830051
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