A nozzle structure of portable high-pressure hydraulic sandblasting cutting equipment is optimized through simulation analysis and experimental tests in this paper. The hydraulic sandblasting cutting technology uses high speed sand fluid jet for cutting operations, which improves the cutting efficiency. At the beginning, the model of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was established to simulate different types, cylinder lengths, and cone angles of nozzle. Also, the comparison analyses of the jet characteristics of the nozzles are performed. The results show that the conical straight nozzle has better jet characteristics. Moreover, combined with mathematical methods, the experimental data of conical nozzle are processed and obtained further results, including the effects on cutting depth of working pressure, cutting transverse speed, and cutting target distance. The research models and results in this paper can provide reference for optimizing nozzle structure, improving nozzle cutting efficiency, and developing similar research.