The Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC), when coupled with the photovoltaic system, namely the Concentrated Photovoltaic Thermal System (CPVT), makes utilizing solar energy efficient. The major challenge that hinders the electrical and thermal performance of the CPC–CPVT system is the non-uniform heat flux distribution on the absorber surface. In the present paper, detailed ray-tracing simulations have been carried out to understand the heat flux distribution characteristics of CPC with different geometrical conditions, and those are concentration ratio, truncation ratio, incident angle, and average heat flux on the absorber surface. To have a thorough understanding, the analysis has been carried out in multiple steps. First, it is performed by analyzing the effect of concentration ratio and incident angle on heat flux distribution characteristics at a fixed truncation ratio. Second, investigations have been carried out to understand the heat flux distribution characteristics at different truncation ratios and different incident angles by keeping the concentration ratio constant. Local concentration ratio and non-uniformity index have been employed to quantify the non-uniformity of heat flux distribution on the absorber surface. It has been observed that the 0-deg incidence angle is the most effective angle to achieve uniform heat flux distribution on the absorber surface. This paper sheds insight into the heat flux distribution characteristics on the absorber surface of a CPC–CPVT system which can be used by the research community for designing an effective CPVT system from the perspective of uniform heat flux distribution on the absorber surface.