This paper reports results from the use of laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) to measure the mean and fluctuating flow field in a U-bend of strong curvature, Rc/D = 0.65, that is either stationary or rotating in orthogonal mode (the axis of rotation being parallel to the axis of curvature). The data acquisition system enables a stationary optical fiber probe to collect flow data from a rotating U-bend sweeping past it. Three cases have been examined, all concerning a flow Reynolds number of 100,000; a stationary case, a case of positive rotation (the pressure side of the duct coincides with the outer side of the U-bend) at a rotational number (ΩD/Um) of 0.2, and a case of negative rotation at a rotational number of −0.2. Measurements have been obtained along the symmetry plane of the duct and also along a plane near the top wall. The most important influence on the development of the mean and turbulence flow fields is exerted by the streamwise pressure gradients that occur over the entry and exit regions of the U-bend. In the stationary case a three-dimensional separation bubble is formed along the inner wall at the 90 deg location and it extends to about two diameters downstream of the bend, causing the generation of high-turbulence levels. Along the outer side, opposite the separation bubble, turbulence levels are suppressed due to streamwise flow acceleration. For the rotation numbers examined, the Coriolis force also has a significant effect on the flow development. Positive rotation doubles the length of the separation bubble and generally suppresses turbulence levels. Negative rotation causes an extra separation bubble at the bend entry, raises turbulence levels within and downstream of the bend, increases velocity fluctuations in the cross-duct direction within the bend, and generates strong secondary motion after the bend exit. It is hoped that the detailed information produced in this study will assist in the development of turbulence models suitable for the numerical computation of flow and heat transfer inside blade-cooling passages.
LDA Investigation of the Flow Development Through Rotating U-Ducts
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Cheah, S. C., Iacovides, H., Jackson, D. C., Ji, H., and Launder, B. E. (July 1, 1996). "LDA Investigation of the Flow Development Through Rotating U-Ducts." ASME. J. Turbomach. July 1996; 118(3): 590–596. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2836706
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