This Paper reports laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) and wall pressure measurements of turbulent flow in a square-sectioned, rotating U-bend, typical of coolant passages employed in modern gas turbine blades. In the upstream and downstream tangents, the pressure and suction (inner and outer) surfaces are roughened with discrete square-sectioned ribs in a staggered arrangement for a rib-height to duct-diameter ratio of 0.1. Three cases have been examined at a passage Reynolds number of 105: a stationary case; a case of positive rotation (the pressure side coinciding with the outer side of the U-bend) at a rotation number (Ro ≡ ΩD/Um) of 0.2; and a case of negative rotation at Ro = −0.2. Measurements have been obtained along the symmetry plane of the duct. In the upstream section, the separation bubble behind each rib is about 2.5 rib heights long. Rotation displaces the high-momentum fluid toward the pressure side, enhances turbulence along the pressure side, and suppresses turbulence along the suction side. The introduction of ribs in the straight sections reduces the size of the separation bubble along the inner wall of the U-bend, by raising turbulence levels at the bend entry; it also causes the formation of an additional separation bubble over the first rib interval along the outer wall, downstream of the bend exit. Rotation also modifies the mean flow development within the U-bend, with negative rotation speeding up the flow along the inner wall and causing a wider inner-wall separation bubble at exit. Turbulence levels within the bend are generally increased by rotation and, over the first two diameters downstream of the bend, negative rotation increases turbulence while positive rotation on the whole has the opposite effect.
LDA Study of the Flow Development Through an Orthogonally Rotating U-Bend of Strong Curvature and Rib-Roughened Walls
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Iacovides, H., Jackson, D. C., Ji, H., Kelemenis, G., Launder, B. E., and Nikas, K. (April 1, 1998). "LDA Study of the Flow Development Through an Orthogonally Rotating U-Bend of Strong Curvature and Rib-Roughened Walls." ASME. J. Turbomach. April 1998; 120(2): 386–391. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2841417
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