Experimental measurements of skin friction $cf$ and heat transfer (St) augmentation are reported for low speed flow over turbine roughness models. The models were scaled from surface measurements taken on actual, in-service land-based turbine hardware. Model scaling factors ranged from 25 to 63, preserving the roughness height to boundary layer momentum thickness ratio for each case. The roughness models include samples of deposits, TBC spallation, erosion, and pitting. Measurements were made in a zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer at two Reynolds numbers (Re$x=500,000$ and 900,000) and three freestream turbulence levels $(Tu=1%$, 5%, and 11%). Measurements at low freestream turbulence indicate augmentation factors ranging from 1.1–1.5 for $St/Sto$ and from 1.3–3.0 for $cf/cfo$$(Sto$ and $cfo$ are smooth plate values). For the range of roughness studied (average roughness height, k, less than 1/3rd the boundary layer thickness) the level of $cf$ augmentation agrees well with accepted equivalent sandgrain $ks$ correlations when $ks$ is determined from a roughness shape/density parameter. This finding is not repeated with heat transfer, in which case the $ks$-based St correlations overpredict the measurements. Both $cf$ and St correlations severely underpredict the effect of roughness for $k+<70$ (when $ks,$ as determined by the roughness shape/density parameter, is small). A new $ks$ correlation based on the rms surface slope angle overcomes this limitation. Comparison of data from real roughness and simulated (ordered cones or hemispheres) roughness suggests that simulated roughness is fundamentally different from real roughness. Specifically, $ks$ values that correlate $cf$ for both simulated and real roughness are found to correlate St for simulated roughness but overpredict St for real roughness. These findings expose limitations in the traditional equivalent sandgrain roughness model and the common use of ordered arrays of roughness elements to simulate real roughness surfaces. The elevated freestream turbulence levels produce augmentation ratios of 1.24 and 1.5 $St/Sto$ and 1.07 and 1.16 $cf/cfo$ compared to the $Tu=1%$ flow over the smooth reference plate. The combined effects of roughness and elevated freestream turbulence are greater than their added effects suggesting that some synergy occurs between the two mechanisms. Specifically, skin friction augmentation for combined turbulence and roughness is up to 20% greater than that estimated by adding their separate effects and 8% greater than compounding (multiplying) their separate effects. For heat transfer augmentation, the combined effect of turbulence and roughness is 5% higher than that estimated by compounding their separate effects at high freestream turbulence ($Tu=11%$). At low turbulence ($Tu=5%$), there is a negative synergy between the two augmentation mechanisms as the combined effect is now 13% lower than that estimated by compounding their separate effects.

*NASA N97-27444*, pp. 328–336.

*Heat Transfer*, 1st Edition, 1992, Irwin, IL.

*Viscous Fluid Flow,*2nd Edition, 1991, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

*Convective Heat and Mass Transfer,*3rd Edition, 1993, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

*Boundary Layer Theory,*7th Edition, 1979, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.